before 1890 |
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Canadian National Telecommunications took over the land line following the U.S. army turn over of the Alaska Highway & airports to Canadian government. They also replaced the Royal Canadian Corp. of signals in communities throughout the north. In 1980 C.N.T changed its name to NorthwesTel and Rolf Hougen joined the board of directors.
| Map of service area
NorthwesTel, formerly C.N.T served Northern B.C., the Yukon and Western N.W.T.
, 1980, Click for larger view.
Mr Maury Young, chairman of Finning Tractor & Equipment Company Limited, invited Rolf Hougen to join the Finning controlled, public company, board of directors. Finning is the Caterpillar dealer in B.C. and the Yukon.
Norman Anderson, chairman of Cominco, A C.P.R. subsidiary company, invited Rolf Hougen to join the board of directors. Cominco, who's origin dates to the turn of the century as Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company. It's principal property was the Kimberly lead, zinc mine & the smelter in Trail. Today it operates in Spain, South Africa, Australia, USA, Mexico with exploration world wide.
The Yukon Foundation
After a conversation with Howard Firth in the late 1970's, Rolf Hougen realized there was no organization that existed in the Yukon that could accept the proceeds of an estate for the benefit of the people of the Yukon.
Rolf Hougen invited several long time Yukoners to participate in creating a body that could accept donations from wills or in honour of relatives or friends. In December 1980, seventeen Yukon men and women agreed to contribute their names and $100.00 to establish the Yukon Foundation, using the Vancouver Foundation (established in 1950) as a model.
The founding members of the Yukon Foundation are:
Ione Christensen, Laurent Cyr, Belle Desrosier, William L Drury, Robert Erlam, Thomas Firth, Charles Halliday, Rolf Hougen, Lorraine Joe, Roy Minter, Hon. Erik Nielsen, Willard Phelps, Gordon Ryder, James Smith, Aubrey Tanner, Charlie Taylor, Flo Whyard
The Yukon Foundation is registered under the Societies Ordinance of the Yukon Territory and it's objectives are based on time honoured standards:
"The objects of the Foundation are to promote educational advancement and scientific or medical research for the enhancement of human knowledge; to support, which may be in the discretion of the Board, contribute to the mental, cultural and physical well-being of the residents of the Yukon Territory.
In order to attain these objectives, the Yukon Foundation is empowered: to receive bequests, devices and donations of every kind and description whatsoever, and hold, control, administer and deal with property of every kind and description, whether real or personal, and whatsoever situate."
|Left to right : Marg Hougen, Rolf Hougen, chairman, Ione Christiansen, vice-chair, Chuck Halliday, treasurer, Marylin Halliday, and (missing) James Smith, secretary, 1980, Click for larger view.
|Roy Minter presenting a cheque to Rolf Hougen, Chairman, to establish the "Minter Fund" Click for larger view.
Klondike Gold Dredges
It was the summer of 1966. It was the year they shutdown the Yukon Consolidated Gold Corporation – YCGC. This conglomerate had dredged the Klondike creeks near Dawson City since the turn of the century. Now those great squealing hotel-like hulks would dig for gold no more.
In 1966, just one gold dredge worked the creeks of the Klondike. They had been an incredibly efficient means of getting gold out of the ground. Consider that, in 1904, YCGC operated seven dredges and took more than 24 million dollars worth of gold from the creeks. That’s when gold was 16 dollars an ounce and the entire Canadian federal budget was 64 million dollars.
I spent part of that summer of ’66 in Dawson, talking with people who had been with the company all of their working lives. YCGC was Dawson City. There wasn’t much else. With the company going, the economy of this once booming town would no doubt suffer badly.
It was quite a sight to see one of those dredges – like great grey monsters, floating in a small lake created by the dredge itself. They looked like rustic old floating hotels. Huge buckets dug down to bedrock at the front of the dredge, then dumped the ground into the bowels of the dredge where the sand and rock were sifted through a mesh screen system.
The gold stayed on the shakers and was cleaned up by hand. The dredges literally turned the ground upside down digging to bedrock, sometimes as deep as 60 feet, then depositing the excess gravel out the back of the dredge. Thus, the creeks and riverbeds around Dawson City were turned upside down.
The dredges picked up more than sand, gravel and gold. Walter Troberg told me about the amount of mastodon ivory they used to collect. It was considered a nuisance and often disposed of by throwing it back into the pond or carting the stuff away to the bush. These great mastodons, which looked like huge hairy elephants, had roamed the region thousands of years before.
The tusks were pure ivory and worth a fortune today. Who knows how much ivory ended up in the dredge ponds or the bushes? Walter said they often picked up old whiskey bottles, sometimes intact, with whiskey still in them. He also found many old coins from the mid-19th century, lost in this gold-bearing country long before the Klondike rush of 1898.
Dredgemaster Johnny Hoggan told me how the dredge worked as we watched old No. 7 doing her final clean up that summer of 1966. I can still hear the screeching, grinding sound of the buckets on their huge chained pulleys, being pulled through the dredge and depositing this treasure inside the contraption.
The dredge which was the last to operate on the Klondike creeks that summer of ’66 now stands as a museum… a monument to ingenuity of an early time when gold in the Klondike made Yukon history.
A CKRW Yukon Nugget by Les McLaughlin.
Attending a Canadian Chamber of Commerce Directors & Annual Meeting, Marg & Rolf Hougen with son, Erik take a break & tour Quebec City by horse & buggy - Sept 1980
The fishing was good in September 1980 as shown by this photo of Rolf Hougen at April Point Lodge on Quadra Island, located opposite Campbell River.
In June 1980 following a Canadian Chamber of Commerce meeting Marg & Rolf Hougen toured New Brunswick. This rural scene is at the restored Village Historique Acadien.
In May of 1980 Marg & Rolf hosted a gathering of Yukoners in honour of a return visit of Fred H Collins & Sybil. He addressed the students of the FH Collins High School - in this photo from L to R - Fred Collins, Gordon Cameron , Jim Smith, Art Pearson & Ione Christensen, all former Commissioners except Ione who is the current Commissioner.
From L to R - Fred Collins, Gordon Cameron , Jim Smith, Art Pearson & Ione Christensen, 1980 Click for larger view.
In 1898, Dawson was fast becoming the largest city west of Winnipeg. It was an upstart place with hotels and fancy bars
featuring gambling rooms, dancing ladies and boxing matches for money.
A boomtown if there ever was one. But as the prospectors left for golder pastures, the town settled down and a sense of
By 1902, Dawson was a modern city. It had running water, three hospitals, three churches, daily newspapers, electric lights,
and a telegraph system. The town with a colourful past now looked to a secure future. Schools and libraries would be part
Dawson had what was called a "Free Library", supported by public funds and by the Standard Library Restaurant and Hotel.
Books could be taken out for 3¢ a day. However, residents wanted a more formal library.
Enter Andrew Carnegie. He was born in Scotland in 1835. His parents emigrated to America when he was a boy. Young Andrew
developed a good business sense and built the Carnegie Steel Corporation.
When he sold out in 1901, he was worth half a billion dollars. Carnegie then became a philanthropist with libraries as the
basis of his good work, contributing money for the construction of library buildings around the world.
One hundred and twenty-five libraries were built in Canada alone with donations from the Carnegie fund. His endowment was
well known in Dawson and the Free Library was not about to miss out on the money. In 1902, they made a funding request
to the Carnegie Foundation.
Carnegie replied with an offer of $25,000, provided the town would spend $2500 dollars
a year on upkeep. The town council sent a letter of acceptance on January 1, 1903.
In March, Council agreed to buy a lot at Fourth and Queen Street from Joe Ladue, Dawson's founder, for $2600 and accepted a design from architect, Robert Montcrieff, who had designed the Bank of Commerce building.
Work began at breakup, but the finishing materials didn't arrive in Whitehorse from the "outside" until the fall of that
year, so the building was not finished until June of 1904.
The Carnegie Library was officially opened on August 16th, 1904, with gleaming gold letters on the front, making no mistake
as to who financed the project. It was yet another architectural wonder in an isolated town that was becoming famous
for fine buildings such as the post office, the Commissioner's residence and the Bank of Commerce building.
Dawsonites could choose from almost seven thousand books and magazines and relax on ornate chairs and sofas inside the
beautiful building. But, alas, it did not last.
|A 1980 Photo of the Carnegie Library
Click for larger view.
|A front view of the Masonic Lodge/ Carnegie Library on the south side of Queen Street in Dawson.
Date: ca. 1920s-1930s.
Yukon Archives. Claude & Mary Tidd fonds, #8363.
Click for larger view.
As the population dwindled, it became impossible for taxpayers to continue funding the upkeep on such an elaborate building.
By 1920, with a population of less than a thousand people, the Carnegie library was sold to the Masonic Lodge.
Today, the Carnegie Libray and the Bank of Commerce designed by architect Robert Montcrieff stand as a fitting reminder
of the days of Dawson's glorious past.
A CKRW Yukon Nugget by Les McLaughlin
Thomas Fuller, Klondike Architect
His dad has been the architect who designed the Parliament buildings in Ottawa, among other great Canadian buildings. So
there was good lineage for the man who designed the Yukon's first official post office. The first post office in Dawson
City was operated by the Northwest Mounted Police from a tent on Front Street. When the newly built NWMP compound called
Fort Herchmer opened, the Mounties moved the post office into a small log building beside the guard room.
With the first delivery in the spring of 1898, lineups were so long they filled the soggy streets for endless blocks.
Miners on the creeks did not dare leave their precious mining claims and, instead, hired men to stand in line for them to
get their much cherished mail.
During the summer, the Dawson post office was moved into a building owned by big Alec McDonald, one of the few wealthy
Klondike Kings. However, on October 14th, 1898 a huge fire engulfed McDonald's building and the post office
disappeared in a puff of smoke.
Twenty-six buildings were destroyed, but by now, saloons were everywhere, so the Mounties leased a place called the Brewery
and set up semipermanent postal headquarters. They were not permanent for long.
Politicians and the public in the Klondike complained bitterly, but the federal government remained unmoved, refusing
to set up a real postal service. Soon, a growing city emerged with churches, schools, hospitals, a fire hall and an
elected municipal government.
While residents could buy just about anything in the shops, they were still forced to line up for hours, if not days, outside the makeshift post office to get their mail. People complained that men with money could jump the queue, slip
the sorters some gold and get their mail quickly. It was known as the "five dollar window", a side door where a bribe would
hasten the process. Frustration continued to grow and threatend to become the key issue in the local elections.
In the late fall of 1898, the Canadian Post Office finally agreed to take over the mail service from the Mounties and, in
January 1899, the federal Post Master General urged that money be included in the budget to establish a real postal service
in Dawson. The Department of Public Works wasted no time in appointing Ottawa architect Thomas W. Fuller to design the
He was a good choice. His father, Thomas Fuller Senior had been Canada's chief architect from 1881 to 1896. Walking in his
father's fairly large shoes, Thomas Fuller Jr. took seriously his task of building the Yukon's first post office. The
land presented its peculiar problems, as architect Fuller quickly observed the delights of building on permafrost.
When the top layer of earth was scraped away, Fuller discovered to his dismay that the ground melted into an oozing mass
of mud. One novel idea he had was to dig holes in the muck and position two large metal boxes in the holes to provide
a foundation for the heavy wood-fired furnaces in the building's basement.
Except for lumber from the local sawmill, most of the building materials had to be imported from "the outside" at
outrageous prices, and carpenters skilled in fabricating anything more than a clapboard saloon were rare in Dawson.
Specialized workers were hired from as far away as Montreal and young Fuller himself was often seen swinging a hammer while
keeping a close eye on his unique design.
When the post office opened in November 1900, the Dawson Daily News heralded it as "...a thing of beauty and a monument
to the architectural skill of the man who designed it,"high praise, indeed, from a generally cantankerous northern press. However, the official opening did not mean that Fuller's
Yukon work was finished. He designed other important buildings including the Territorial court house and
Administration Building, the Comissioner's residence, and the Telegraph office. Today, all are National Historic Sites.
While the post office was not in the architectural league with his father's Parliament Buildings, Thomas Jr. no doubt made
a good impression with his Klondike construction efforts since he, like his father before him, was appointed the Chief
Architect of Canada.
A CKRW Yukon Nugget by Les McLaughlin
Yukon Gold Potato
This nugget is about Yukon gold – the
Yukon gold that sells for about fifty cents a pound. It’s the kind you can eat. And it is good for you too! Yep, the Yukon Gold potato. It took years of research to come up with a variety of potato that would eventually feature this famous name. Today, Yukon Gold is one of the most well known potato varieties in North America. How did it happen?
Yukon Gold is the work of the late Dr. Gary Johnston, a scientist at the University of Guelph, Ontario. During the 1960s, he headed a research team that was trying to develop a hardy potato with yellow flesh that would grow almost anywhere in
Canada and be relatively disease free. It took thirteen years of work by
Johnston and his team of scientists but it was worth it since the Yukon Gold is prized by chefs and homemakers around the world.
Why was the research done? Well, yellow-fleshed potatoes are common in Europe and South America and immigrants to North America preferred them. This untapped market required an enhanced, disease-resistant golden variety that could be easily grown in North America. The result was the Yukon Gold, the first Canadian-bred potato to be marketed and promoted by name. It received a Canadian license in 1980 and was soon being exported to the United States. Yep, potato varieties are licensed.
The job of a scientific potato researcher like Gary Johnston is complex. How does the potato taste? Is it resistant to diseases? Where will it grow? What is the yield? These are only a few of the many questions that must be answered. When the research is done and the potato is ready for market, the scientist who developed the new variety, gets the right to name it. Gary Johnston chose the name – Yukon Gold.
There are other gold-fleshed potatoes on the market, including Yellow Finn, Michigold, Banana, and Saginaw Gold, but none have the name recognition of Yukon Gold. Ever wonder how much this name recognition appeals to potential visitors to the land of gold?
A CKRW Yukon Nugget by Les McLaughlin
THE WHITEHORSE STAR REPORTS IN 1980*
| • January 4, 1980 |
→ January 14, 1980
→ January 16, 1980
| 1980 saw two Mr. and Mrs. Yukon couples. Jack and Mary Nichols were originally selected as Mr. and Mrs Yukon (January 4, 1980). After Jack Nichols died at the age of 78, less than a month later (January 14, 1980), Jack and Mary McDiarmid of Mayo were selected as the new Mr. and Mrs. Yukon. Mary Nichols had declined to keep the title after her husband's death.
| • January 15, 1980 || The City Council unveils plans for a new access road to the Porter Creek subdivision to be completed within 2 years |
| • January 21, 1980 || Liberal leader Pierre Trudeau visits Whitehorse in support of Yukon candidate Ione Christensen. |
| • January 23, 1980 || The price of gold reaches an all-time high of $850(US) resulting in a minor staking rush in the Klondike region. |
| • January 28, 1980 || The Whitehorse Credit Union Ltd. closes its doors after 22 years in business. Increasing difficulties in meeting its operating costs are behind the closure. |
| • January 29, 1980 || 3 new classifications are suggested by the territorial government as one way of avoiding political problems in Yukon communities. The paper suggests Yukon communities be divided into cities, towns and villages with an additional classification of hamlet for communities not capable of assuming village status. |
| • January 31, 1980 || Old Crow elder Joe Netro - receiver of the Centennial Award - dies at the age of 86. |
| • January 31, 1980 || Studies show Whitehorse remains the most expensive place to live in Canada. |
| • February 4, 1980 || The fourth generator to the Whitehorse hydro-electric dam has been approved. |
| • February 4, 1980 || Public Works Minister Erik Nielsen announces a norther research centre. |
| • February 15, 1980 |
→ February 29, 1980
→ August 11, 1980
→ November 27, 1980
| The Alaskan natural gas pipeline is in the news throughout the year. Foothill Pipe Line starts its largest soil test drill programm in August (August 11, 1980). Financial support, environmental reasons and effects on the job market are debated by the U.S. administration, the Yukon government and the B.C. government. |
| • February 19, 1980 || Erik Nielsen is elected the Yukon MP for the 11th time straight, beating Liberal Ione Christensen. First results have Nielsen barely winning by 61 votes. The final count reveals a margin of 101 votes. |
| • February 25, 1980 || Roxanne Nielsen - Erik Nielsen's daughter - becomes the first Yukon female to graduate from the RCMP Academy in Regina. |
| • February 25, 1980 || The Downtown Hotel in Dawson City burns down. |
| • February 27, 1980 || A $12 million hotel complex and convention centre project at Second and Wood Street, proposed by Rolf Hougen, has been dropped because of high costs and a poor economy. |
| • March 3, 1980 || Rolf Hougen unveils his plans for a northern TV satellite system. His proposal is to rent a transponder on the ANIK A3 satellite and beam a mixed program from four TV stations to all of Canada, but particularly aimed at northern service. |
| • March 3, 1980 |
→ March 25, 1980
| John Munro is named the federal minister for Indian affairs and nothern development in the new Trudeau cabinet. He visits the territory for the first time March 28, 1980. |
| • March 4, 1980 || High silver prices help Keno to open new property in the Elsa area. |
| • March 4, 1980 || Rural mail delivery in Whitehorse begins for the first time. |
| • March 6, 1980 || An area 30 miles north of Old Crow may join the list of cultural historical sites of the UNESCO World Heritage List. |
| • March 14, 1980 || The hotel complex and convention centre project has been revived by Rolf Hougen. |
| • March 17, 1980 || Opening of the Artic Winter Games in Whitehorse: the Games see two world records in Arctic Sports and a food poisoning incident that sends 40 people to hospital. |
| • March 17, 1980 || Northward Airlines went bankrupt. |
| • March 26, 1980 || The Western National Party plans a referendum on the Yukon's indepence for late summer. |
| • April 1, 1980 || Rolf Hougen is elected as one of the 2 directors of Finning Tractor & Equipment Co. Ltd. Vancouver |
| • April 2, 1980 || Art Fry of Dawson City receives the Lifestyle Award for his work with the Yukon Boxing Association and promoting fitness among amateur athletes in the territory. |
| • April 2, 1980 || The Captain Martin house - Whitehorse's oldest frame building - is offered to the city for $1 for restoration as a historic site. |
| • April 7, 1980 || Peter Jenkinsis is elected mayor of Dawson City. |
| • April 7, 1980 || An earthquake, registering 5.2 on the Richter scale, shakes the city of Anchorage. |
| • April 8, 1980 || United Keno Hill approves the re-opening of the Venus gold-silver mine near Carcross. |
| • April 9, 1980 || Yukon MP Erik Nielsen is appointed deputy opposition house leader and chairman of the question period committee for the federal Conservative caucus. |
| • April 9, 1980 || Hudson Bay opens at Fourth and Ogilvie. |
| • April 10, 1980 || It is revealed that the RCMP intercepted in 1979 a telephone call between a Justice Minister Doug Graham and Whitehorse Businessman Barry Bellchamber who is later fined $50,000 and sentenced to 1 day in jail for defrauding the Yukon government and members of the public. |
| • April 24, 1980 || A plan for a pedestrian mall on Main Street was voted down by the Downtown Businessmen's Association. |
| • April 25, 1980 || As of 2 a.m. April 27, 1980 Yukon is the last province/territory in Canada to join daylight saving time. |
| • April 30, 1980 || American ambassador to Canada, Ken Curtis, visits the territories. |
| • May 8, 1980 || The Aksala sternwheeler at Paddlewheel Village on the Alaska Highway is pulled down as the rickety structure was too dangerous to be left standing. |
| • May 9, 1980 || Rolf Hougen is appointed as one of the directors of NorthwesTel. |
| • May 13, 1980 || Swede Hanson, minister for renewable resources, tourism and economic development, resignes from the Yukon cabinet after controversy over hunting by Indian people in Kluane. Hanson is replaced by Dan Lang. |
| • May 15, 1980 || ATCO Ltd. offers to buy out the U.S. portion of Yukon Electrical ownership. |
| • May 15, 1980 || The election of officials for the new Council for Yukon Indians, an umbrella group, is held with Dave Porter, Joe Jack, Elijah Smith and Judy Gingell elected. |
| • May 29, 1980 || The Yukon and NWT send out an request to prime minister Pierre Trudeau to include the two territories in the upcoming talks on the Canadian constitution. |
| • June 2, 1980 || Indian Affairs Minister John Munro announces that native Indians will have self-government within 2 years. |
| • June 3, 1980 || Cyprus Anvil announces a $240 million expansion. Such expansion could add 8 years to the life of the Faro operation. |
| • June 10, 1980 || It is revealed that there will be no elected northern representative at future talks on Canada's constitution. |
| • June 16, 1980 || Giovanni Castellarin is the first person to be awarded the Commissioner's Award for outstanding community work. |
| • June 16, 1980 || The first talks over Yukon native land claims under the new federal government start in Vancouver. |
| • June 18, 1980 || It is announced that the first World Cup Final for Cross-Country Ski Races ever held in Canada will be hosted in Whitehorse. |
| • July 3, 1980 |
→ July 17, 1980
| A small earthquake, measuring 4.3 on Richter Scale, shakes the southern Yukon area. Another tremor, measuring 4.5 on the Richter Scale, shakes Whitehorse July 16, 1987. No injuries or damages were reported. |
| • July 11, 1980 || Sandy and Mary Taylor of Beaver Creek are honored with first-level commissioner's awards for outstanding community achievement. |
| • July 14, 1980 || Governor-General Ed Schreyer visits Whitehorse which includes a visit of the MacBride Museum. |
| • July 24, 1980 || A report by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission recommends improvements in northern and remote television service. |
| • August 4, 1980 || Canada and the United States jointly accept the UNESCO World Heritage plaque at Kluane National Park. The Kluane-Wrangell-St.Ellias wilderness is the first joint international World Heritage Site. The Kluane Park limited access plan is approved at the same time. |
| • August 7, 1980 || The Columbia Gas System Inc. find in southeast Yukon a gas field that yields a daily flow of 50 to 70 million cubic feet of gas daily. |
| • August 11, 1980 || Anvil begins in Faro a $240 million conversion of the mill and expansion of the town to handle new ore deposit. |
| • August 15, 1980 || Dr. Hilda Hellaby is honored by the Kiwanis Club with the citizen of the year award. |
| • August 19, 1980 || Jim Murdoch, Whitehorse humorist, writer, entertainer and founder of the Frantic Follies, drowns on Atlin lake. |
| • September 11, 1980 || Workers at the United Keno Hill lead-silver mine in Elsa go on strike. |
| • September 11, 1980 || Tintina Mines Ltd. outlines the biggest molybdenum deposit in North America 80km from Whitehorse. |
| • September 12, 1980 || The Yukon and the Northwest Territories are excluded from constitutional talks at the first ministers' conference. The exclusion prompts protest from Yukon government leader Chris Pearson. The next day Pearson is invited to attend the conference as an observer but refuses. |
| • October 8, 1980 || United Keno Hill Mines Ltd. starts works on the mill for the Venus mine south of Carcross. |
| • October 9, 1980 || Mayo becomes fourth Yukon community to ban public drinking. Others are Whitehorse, Dawson City and Teslin. |
| • October 16, 1980 || The Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunication Commission (CRTC) issues a call for proposals to extend service to remote and under-served areas. |
| • October 17, 1980 || It is announced that Ol' 73, the last of the White Pass steam engines and a possible major tourist attraction, will not run in the near future due to a lack of money for complete restauration and operating costs. |
| • October 18, 1980 || John Livesey of Beaver Creek and Brynmor Mills of Elsa are recipients of the Commissioner's Award for their individual effort, contributions and participation in their communities. |
| • October 21, 1980 || Finning Tractor announces a $1 million expansion of its facilities in Whitehorse. |
| • October 27, 1980 || The first of WHTV's public access television programming premiered. |
| • November 6, 1980 || Yukon Liberal Senator Paul Lucier is appointed to sit on the Parliamentary committee set up to study the proposed new Canadian constitution. |
| • December 3, 1980 || A joint application for licences to establish a northern broadcasting network has been filed with the CRTC by two groups representing Yukon and NWT native Indians. |
| • December 5, 1980 || A joint government-industry task force is being created to plan and co-ordinate mining development in the Macmillan-Howard's Pass area on the Yukon-NWT border. |
| • December 16, 1980 || The Captain Martin house is moved from Wood Street for the city works compound until it can settle on the riverbank as part of a planned future heritage village. |
| • December 19, 1980 || Gordon Cameron has been appointed a member of the Order in Canada. |
| • December 23, 1980 |
→ August 13, 1980
| Doug Bell is named the new Commissioner of the Yukon Territory, succeeding Ione Christensen, who resigned from this position in October 1979. In August, Terry Weninger had refused the job of the Yukon commissioner. |
| • December 31, 1980 || Orbitel Communications Co. formally applied for a licence to supply television service by remote and underserved areas of Canada. |
|* The dates on the left indicate when the event was reported in the newspaper and might differ from the actual date of the event/ the date mentioned within the text on the right.|